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Understanding skin – Skin types and condition


Understanding the four skin types: normal, dry, oily and combination
Normal skin
Dry skin
Oily skin
Combination skin
Sensitive Skin
Evaluating skin type and conditionThere are four basic types of healthy skin: normal, dry, oily and
combination skin. Skin type is determined by genetics. The condition of our skin can, however, vary
greatly according to the various internal and external factors it is subjected to.
Normal skin
What is normal skin?
‘Normal’ is a term widely used to refer to well-balanced skin. The scientific term for well-balanced skin is
eudermic. The T-zone (forehead, chin and nose) may be a bit oily, but overall sebum and moisture is balanced
and the skin is neither too oily nor too dry.
How to identify normal skin
A velvety, soft and smooth texture is a sign for a healthy and
radiant skin.
Normal skin has:
fine pores
good blood circulation
a velvety, soft and smooth texture
a fresh, rosy color uniform transparency
no blemishes
and is not prone to sensitivity.
As a person with normal skin ages, their skin can become dryer. Read more in age induced dryness.
Dry skin
What is dry skin?
‘Dry’ is used to describe a skin type that produces less sebum than normal skin. As a result of the lack of sebum,
dry skin lacks the lipids that it needs to retain moisture and build a
protective shield against external influences. This leads to an
impaired barrier function. Dry skin (Xerosis) exists in varying
degrees of severity and in different forms that are not always
clearly distinguishable.Significantly more women suffer from dry
skin than men and all skin gets drier as it ages. Problems related
to dry skin are a common complaint and account for 40% of visits
to dermatologists.
The causes of dry skin
Tightness and a rough skin
feeling often indicates a dry
skin.Elderly women with dry skin have more pronounced wrinkles and lines.
Skin moisture depends on supply of water in the deeper skin layers and on
Skin is constantly losing water via:
Perspiration: active water loss from the glands caused by heat, stress and

Transepidermal Water Loss (TEWL): The skin’s natural, passive way of shedding approximately half a liter of water from the deeper layers of the skin every
days. Dry
 skin is caused by a lack of:
Natural Moisturizing Factors (NMFs) – specifically urea, amino acids and lactic acid  help retain moisture. Epidermal lipids such as ceramides, fatty acids and cholesterol necessary for the proper functioning of the skin barrier. As a result, the barrier function of the skin may be compromised. Learn more about dry skin.
How to recognize the different levels of dry skin Dry skin can vary from slightly drier than normal to very dry to extremely dry. These differences can generally be distinguished as follows:
Both internal and external factors can interfere with the skin’s ability to hydrate.
 soles of the feet are subject to dryness and chapping.
Dry skin, mildly dry skin may appear tight, scaly, rough and dull. The elasticity of the skin is also low.
very dry skin, if the dryness is not treated, the skin may show: slight scaling or patchy scaling a rough, mottled appearance (sometimes resembling premature aging)
a feeling of tightness
may be itchy
it is also more susceptible to irritation, redness and risk of infection. Learn more about
 dry skin.
Extremely dry skin
Certain parts of the body – especially hands, feet, elbows and knees 
Prone to:
Rough, prone to cracking (fissures), calluses often rubbed
Most common itching Old or severely dehydrated.
Learn more about rough, cracked skin.
Oily skin
What is oily skin?
“Oily” is used to describe skin types with increased sebum production. The overproduction is known as
Causes of oily skin
Oily skin tends to have blemishes. Many problems cause
excess sebum:
genetic hormonal changes and imbalances
stress medications, comedogenic cosmetics (irritating makeup) how to recognize
 the different types of oily skin?
Oily skin is characterized by large, visible pores.
Acne problems often appear on the T,
 especially during puberty.
Oily skin is characterized by:
Larger, clearly visible, shiny pores
Thick, pale skin: blood vessels may not be visible
Oily skin is prone to acne (blackheads and whiteheads
) and various forms of comedones
With mild acne, comedones appear in large numbers
on the face, usually on the neck, shoulders, back and
chest. In moderate and severe cases, papules (small bumps without a visible white or black head) and pustules (medium-sized bumps with a distinct white or yellow dot in the center) develop and the skin becomes red and inflamed.

Combination skin
What is combination skin?
Oily T-zone (forehead, nose and chin) and dry cheeks indicate so-called combination skin. In
combination skins, the T-zone and the cheeks were of different skin types. The so-called T-zone can vary considerably
 from very thin to wide zones. Combination skin is characterized by: Oily T-zone (forehead, chin
and nose) This area has large pores and may contain some impurities Normal to dry cheeks,
 of combination skin, The oily parts of combination skin are due excessive secretion of sebum.
The dry part
of combination skin is caused by a lack of sebum and a corresponding lipid deficiency.
Assessing skin type and condition
Unlike skin type, skin condition can change significantly over your lifetime.
The many internal and external factors that determine its condition include: climate and
pollution, medications, stress, genetic factors affecting sebum levels,
sweat and natural moisturizing factors produced by the skin, and the products you use
and the skin care choices you make.
Skin care products should be selected based on skin type and condition. Dermatologists and other
skincare professionals determine the condition of a person’s skin type by measuring the following factors:
Using anti-aging products can help reduce the appearance of
B-Resorcinol, the main active ingredient in Eucerin EVEN BRIGHTER
range, has been shown to reduce the appearance of dark spots.
Signs of Aging Our skin type changes throughout our lives. Those with oily skin type during their teenage years may find their skin drier after puberty, and those with normal skin type may find their skin drier as they age.
As all skin types age, skin loses volume and density, fine lines and wrinkles develop, and changes in pigmentation
occur. Understanding and measuring these signs of aging helps us determine the condition of our skin.
Learn more about skin aging.
Skin Tone:- Skin color and ethnicity can affect how our skin reacts to external
forces such as the sun, pigmentation disorders, irritation and inflammation

The basic color of the skin is determined by the density of the epidermis and the distribution of melanin. Learn more about skin ethics. Skin redness is also a useful
indicator of skin condition; it shows the success of our
circulation and can be used to identify conditions such as brown sugar and rosacea.
Sensitive Skin:- Sensitive skin is skin that is easily irritated by various factors generally tolerated by well-balanced skin, such as skin care products or high and low temperatures. For some people, sensitive skin is a permanent condition, while for others, sensitivity is caused by certain internal and external factors. It occurs when the skin’s natural barrier function is compromised,
causing moisture loss and allowing irritants to enter.
 that facial skin is most exposed to can make symptoms worse, from sunlight to some ingredients in cosmetics and cleaning products
Learn more about sensitive facial skin.
For oily skin, a daily skin care routine with suitable products should be followed.
Sebum and sweat production
The amount of sebum produced by the sebaceous glands in the skin controls the effectiveness of the skin’s barrier function
and therefore
 the condition of the skin. Too much sebum can lead to oily, acne-prone skin, while too little can lead to dry skin. The sweat glands in the skin produce sweat to help the
body maintain an optimal temperature. Sweating too much or too little can affect the condition of the skin.
Natural Moisturizing Factor (NMF)
NMFs found naturally in healthy skin, such as amino acids, help retain moisture in the skin, maintain its elasticity and
suppleness and prevent dehydration. .
When the
 protective barrier is compromised, these essential NMFs are often not retained, resulting in skin that is less hydrated and in a compromised state.
Cutaneous sensitivity.

Sensitive skin is skin that is easily irritated and reacts more easily than normal skin. Identifying and evaluating 4,444 symptoms, including redness, rash, stinging, itching, and burning, helps determine skin conditions.
What is hyperpigmentation?
Hyperpigmentation, such as dark spots and freckles, is caused by overactive cells producing too much
melanin, a natural skin pigment.
How to prevent hyperpigmentation?
Hyperpigmentation is primarily caused by the sun’s UV rays, so blocking the sun’s UV rays
and using SPF sunscreen can help prevent hyperpigmentation
How to keep skin clear?
Sun damage is the number one cause of skin darkening, so blocking the sun’s UV rays and wearing
SPF sunscreen can help prevent darkening. Additionally, dry skin can result in a dull appearance as well as residue of dirt, oil, and makeup. So be sure to cleanse and moisturize daily!
What causes dark circles under the eyes?
Dark circles can be the result of visible blood vessels under the thin skin under the eyes, or they can be the result of the breakdown of collagen and elastin as we age, causing shadows in the sunken areas around the eyes. eyes.
What will make dark circles worse?
Lack of sleep and damage from the sun’s UV rays can make dark circles darker.
What’s the best way to keep skin dry in winter?
To keep the skin hydrated during the cold winter months, apply a moisturizer containing
 twice a day and take short hot showers instead of long hot showers, which rob the skin of its natural moisture.
How do I know if my skin is dry?
If you
 have dry skin, you may experience “stiffness”, itching, rough, scaly or flaky skin, or cracked skin.
Why have I never had dry skin before?
Dry skin can occur at any time. Common causes include sun exposure, climate or temperature changes, and indoor heating or air conditioning.
Why are women more likely to lose skin elasticity than men?
 skin naturally has lower levels of collagen than men’s. Lower estrogen levels also lead to decreased collagen production as we age and go through menopause
What effect do free radicals have on the skin? Free radicals can damage the skin by damaging DNA, cell membranes and collagen.
They are responsible for some of the signs of aging such as fine lines, wrinkles and sagging skin.
What is collagen and why is it important? Collagen is a skin protein responsible for the elasticity and elasticity of the skin. As we age, collagen production slows, leading to wrinkles and other common signs of aging.
What is the difference between wrinkles and fine lines?
The difference is visibility. When you relax,
fine lines almost always disappear and wrinkles are still visible.
What causes fine lines and wrinkles? As we age, collagen production slows and elastin
(another protein found in skin) becomes less flexible, resulting in thinner, less elastic skin. Over time,
skin slowly loses its ability to hold its shape and wrinkles begin to form.
Are there foods that cause acne? Some studies show no link between diet and acne, while others do.
Dairy products and carbohydrate-rich foods are particularly comedogenic.
Will my acne get better in the summer? Acne can get better or worse in the summer depending on individual circumstances

If things get worse, increased sweating is the most likely culprit.

Why is acne more common in teenagers? The onset of acne is closely linked to hormonal fluctuations which occur most frequently during puberty, which is why it is more common in adolescents.
Can acne be hereditary? possible. Research shows that you are more likely to develop acne if you have a family history of acne, especially if one of your parents had acne.
What is Acne? Acne is the result of inflammation of the skin, usually caused by overactive sebaceous glands.
How do I know if my acne is severe? Severe acne is more than just red pimples or inflamed pus-filled lesions; it can also cause painful cysts that contain pus and can cause permanent skin damage and scarring.
What are the signs and symptoms of skin sensitivity?
Sensitive skin often stings, burns, or becomes irritated, irritated, or red.
What causes skin sensitivity? Sensitive skin is often caused by the weakening of the skin’s natural moisture barrier
and can be the result of genetic, aging, hormonal or environmental factors.
How to improve sensitive skin? The gentle, fragrance-free and non-comedogenic
moisturizer moisturizes the skin and improves its moisture barrier.
A strong barrier will prevent potential irritants from penetrating the skin.
What causes oily or shiny skin? Oily or “shiny” skin is usually caused by overactive sebaceous glands producing too much sebum, also known as sebum. As we age, the activity of the sebaceous glands decreases.
If I have oily skin, do I still need to moisturize?
Really. If you have oily skin, be sure to use a light moisturizer (even
 to keep your skin healthy and counter the dryness caused by washing your face. If
skin becomes too dry, it will only make the problem worse by causing the skin to produce more sebum.
Why do pores get bigger? Pores can get larger for a variety of reasons.
Dirt can enter the pores of the
causing them to widen, or as they age the pores become less supportive and become larger.
What is the difference between AHA and BHA? AHA (alpha hydroxy acid) and BHA (beta
hydroxy acid) exfoliate the superficial layer of dead skin cells. BHA is often used in blemishes or pore minimizing products.
How to shrink pores?
A BHA (beta hydroxy acid), such as salicylic acid, is a powerful
treatment that reduces the appearance of pores by exfoliating the surface cells of pores.
Why is my skin dull? As dead skin cells accumulate, light travels unevenly across the skin, resulting in a dull complexion.
How can I get brighter skin? Skincare products that contain AHAs (like glycolic acid) or
BHAs (like salicylic acid) help exfoliate the top layer of dead skin cells, making the skin underneath more radiant.
Skin exfoliators work on a similar principle by mechanically removing dead skin cells from the surface.

What is combination skin? Skin is considered combination when some areas are dry or normal and others are oily.
Does the self-tanner protect the skin from the sun’s UV rays? Self-tanners will not protect the skin from
sun damage unless they include SPF protection, so it’s important to continue using a lotion with
broad-spectrum SPF protection  even if you tan.
What does the SPF value of a sunscreen mean?
SPF  or Sun Protection Factor –
refers to how long you can spend in the sun without getting burned. This means, for example, that if you use a
SPF 15 lotion, your skin should be protected from burns for around 15 times longer than if you did not use any lotion.
The exact duration varies depending on your skin tone and genetic makeup.
Should I still wear sunscreen on cloudy days? Yes, you should wear sunscreen on cloudy days, as some UV rays penetrate clouds.
What is the difference between UVA and UVB rays? UVA rays are present all year round and
can penetrate glass. They are more abundant than UVB rays and are a major cause of skin aging. There are over
UVB rays in the summer, which are the main cause of sunburn.
What causes sunburn?
Sunburn occurs when the skin is exposed to more UV rays than the
it has to protect itself with natural melanin.
When are the sun’s rays strongest? The sun’s rays are most intense between 10 a.m. and 4 p.m.
is strongest at high altitudes or when reflected from water, snow, or sand.
What is a tan? Tanning is the result of increased production of melanin, the skin’s natural pigment.
What are the long term effects of tanning?
Tanning is the main cause of
the appearance of aging, such as fine lines, wrinkles, sagging and dark spots. Long-term exposure can cause your skin to age
faster and increase your risk of skin cancer.
How does air conditioning affect my skin? The conditioner draws natural moisture from your
‘s skin and keeps
 it dry.
What is the difference between physical peels and chemical peels?

Physical Exfoliator acts as a scrubber, using beads, walnut shells or other substances to mechanically remove dead skin.
Chemical exfoliants, such as glycolic acid, dissolve the bonds that hold dead cells to the surface of the skin.
How does stress affect my skin? When you’re stressed, your body releases cortisol, a hormone that causes
changes in your sebaceous glands. Here’s Why Outbreaks Often Happen During Stressful Times

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